Roll of Champions

WOMEN'S SINGLES CHAMPIONS

YEAR
CHAMPION
RUNNER UP

2019

Julia Goerges (Germany) Bianca Andreescu (Canada)

2018

Julia Goerges (Germany) Caroline Wozniacki (Denmark)
2017 Lauren Davis (USA) Ana Konjuh (Croatia)
2016 Sloane Stephens (USA) Julia Goerges (Germany)
2015 Venus Williams (USA) Caroline Wozniacki (Denmark)
2014 Ana Ivanovic (SRB) Venus Williams (USA)
2013 Agnieszka Radwanska (Poland) Yanina Wickmayer (Belgium)
2012 Zheng Jie (China) Flavia Pennetta (Italy)
2011 Greta Arn (Hungary) Yanina Wickmayer (Belgium)
2010 Yanina Wickmayer (Belgium) Flavia Pennetta (Italy)
2009 Elena Dementieva (Russia) Elena Vesnina (Russia)
2008 Lindsay Davenport (USA) Aravane Rezai (France)
2007 Jelena Jankovic (Serbia) Vera Zvonereva (Russia)
2006 Marion Bartoli (France) Vera Zvonereva (Russia)
2005 Katarina Srebotnik (Slovenia) Shinobu Asagoe (Japan)
2004 Eleni Daniilidou (Greece) Ashley Harkleroad (USA)
2003 Eleni Daniilidou (Greece) Cho Yoon-jeong (South Korea)
2002 Anna Smashnova (Israel) Tatiana Panova (Russia)
2001 Meilen Tu (USA) Paola Suarez (Argentina)
2000 Anne Kremer (Luxembourg) Cara Black (Zimbabwe)
1999 Julie Halard-Decugis (France) Dominique van Roost (Belgium)
1998 Dominique van Roost (Belgium) Silvia Farina Elia (Italy)
1997 Marion Maruska (Austria) Judith Wiesner (Austria)
1996 Sandra Cacic (USA) Barbara Paulus (Austria)
1995 Nicole Bradtke (Australia) Ginger Helgeson-Nielsen (USA)
1994 Ginger Helgeson-Nielsen (USA) Inés Gorrochategui (Argentina)
1993 Elna Reinach (South Africa) Caroline Kuhlman (USA)
1992 Robin White (USA) Andrea Strnadová (Czech Republic)
1991 Eva Sviglerová (Czech Republic) Andrea Strnadová (Czech Republic)
1990 Leila Meskhi (Georgia) Sabine Appelmans (Belgium)
1989 Patty Fendick (USA) Belinda Cordwell (New Zealand)
1988 Patty Fendick (USA) Sara Gomer (Great Britain)
1987 Gretchen Magers (USA) Terry Phelps (USA)
1986 Anne Hobbs (Great Britain) Louise Field (Australia)
1982 Susan Hagey (Germany Belinda Cordwell (New Zealand)
1981 Pam Whytcross (Australia) Chris Newton (Australia)
1980 Janet Newberry (USA) Judy Connor Chaloner (New Zealand)
1979 Pam Whytcross (Australia) Brenda Perry (New Zealand)
1978 Helena Anilot (Sweden) Marilyn Tesch (Australia
1977 Heidi Eisterlehner (Germany) Karen Krantzcke (Australia)
1976 Sue Barker (Great Britain) Helga Niessen Masthoff (DNF - Rain)
1975 Evonne Goolagong (Australia) Linda Mottram (Great Britain)
1974 Evonne Goolagong (Australia) Ann Kiyomura (USA)
1973 Evonne Goolagong (Australia) Marilyn Pryde (New Zealand)
1972 Kerry Melville (Australia) Rosie Casals (USA)
1971 Margaret Smith (Australia)  
1970 Ann Jones (Great Britain) Kerry Melville (Australia)
1969 Ann Jones (Great Britain) Karen Krantzcke (Australia)
1968 Kerry Melville (Australia)  
1967 Rosie Casals (USA)  
1966 Margaret Smith (Australia)  
1965 Rita Bentley (Great Britain)  
1964 Margaret Smith (Australia)  
1963 Lesley Turner (Australia)  
1962 Darlene Hard (USA)  
1961 Jan Lehane (Australia)  
1960 Ruia Morrison (New Zealand) Margaret Smith (Australia)
1959 Ruia Morrison (New Zealand) Jan Lehane (Australia)
1958 Angela Mortimer (Great Britain)  
1957 Margaret Hellyer (Australia)  
1956 Mary Hawton (Australia)   


 

WOMEN'S DOUBLES CHAMPIONS 

YEAR
CHAMPIONS
RUNNERS UP
2019 Eugenie Bouchard (Canada)/ Sofia Kenin (USA)  Taylor Townsend (USA) /Paige Hourigan (New Zealand)
2018 Sara Errani (Italy)/ Bibiane Schoofs (Netherlands) Eri Hozumi (Japan)/ Miya Kato (Japan)
2017 Kiki Bertens (Netherlands)/ Johanna Larsson (Sweden) Demi Schuurs (Netherlands)/ Renata Voracova (Czech Republic)
2016 Elise Mertens (BLG)/ An-Sophie Mestach (BEL) Danka Kovinic (MNE)/ Barbora Strycova (CZE)
2015 Sara Errani (ITA)/ Roberta Vinci (ITA) Shuko Aoyama (Japan)Renata Voráčová (CZE)
2014 Sharon Fichman (Canada)/ Maria Sanchez (USA)  Lucie Hradecká (CZE)/ Michaëlla Krajicek (Netherlands)
2013 Cara Black (ZWE)Anastasia Rodionova (AUS) Julia Görges (Germany)Yaroslava Shvedova (Kazakhstan)
2012 Lucie Hradecka (Czech Republic)/ Andrea Hlavackova (Czech Republic) Flavia Pennetta (Italy)/ Julia Goerges (Germany)
2011 Květa Peschke (Czech Republic/ Katarina Srebotnik (Slovenia) Sofia Arvidsson (Sweden)/ Marina Erakovic (New Zealand)
2010 Cara Black (Zimbabwe)/ Liezel Huber (USA) Natalie Grandin (South Africa)/ Laura Granville (USA)
2009 Nathalie Dechy (France)/ Mara Santangelo (Italy) Nuria Llagostera Vives (Spain)/ Arantxa Parra Santonja (Spain)
2008 Mariya Koryttseva ( Ukraine)/ Lilia Osterloh (USA) Martina Muller (Germany)/ Barbora Záhlavová-Strýcová (Czech Republic)
2007 Janette Husarova (Slovakia)/ Paola Suarez (Argentina) Su-Wei Hsieh (Taiwan)/ Shikha Uberoi (India)
2006 Elena Likhovtseva (Russia)/ Vera Zvonareva (Russia) Émilie Loit (France)/ Barbora Strýcová (Czech Republic)
2005 Shinobu Asagoe (Japan)/ Katarina Srebotnik (Slovenia) Leanne Baker (New Zealand)/ Francesca Lubiani (Italy)
2004 Mervana Jugić-Salkić (Bosnia)/ Jelena Kostanić (Serbia) Virginia Ruano Pascual (Spain)/ Paola Suarez (Argentina)
2003 Teryn Ashley (USA)/ Abigail Spears (USA) Cara Black (Zimbabwe)/ Elena Likhovtseva (Russia)
2002 Nicole Arendt (USA)/ Liezel Huber (South Africa) Květa Hrdličková (Czech Republic)/ Henrieta Nagyová (Slovakia)
2001 Alexandra Fusai (France)/ Rita Grande (Italy) Emmanuelle Gagliardi (Switzerland)/ Barbara Schett (Germany)
2000 Cara Black (Zimbabwe)/ Alexandra Fusai (France) Barbara Schwartz (Austria)/ Patricia Wartusch (Austria)
1999 Silvia Farina (Italy)/ Barbara Schett (Austria) Seda Noorlander (Netherlands)/ Marlene Weingarten (Germany)
1998 Nana Miyagi (Japan)/ Tamarine Tanasugarn (Thailand) Julie Halard-Decugis (France)/ Janette Husárová (Czech Republic)
1997 Janette Musgrove (Czech Republic)/ Dominique Van Roost (Belgium) Aleksandra Olsza (Poland)/ Elena Pampoulova (Bulgaria)
1996 Els Callens (Belgium)/ Julie Halard-Decugis (France) Jill Hetherington (Canada)/ Kristine Radford (Australia)
1995 Jill Hetherington (Canada)/ Elna Reinach (South Africa) Laura Golarsa (Italy)/ Caroline Vis (Netherlands)
1994 Patrica Hy (Canada)/ Mercedes Paz (Argentina) Jenny Bryne (Australia)/ Julie Richardson (Australia)
1993 Isabelle Demingeot (France)/ Elna Reinach (South Africa) Jill Hetherington (Canada)/ Kathy Rinaldi (USA)
1992 Rosalyn Fairbanl-Nideffer (South Africa)/ Raffaella Reggi (Italy) Jill Hetherington (Canada)/ Kathy Rinaldi (USA)
1991 Patty Fenwick (USA)/ Larisa Neiland (Soviet Union) Jo-Anne Faull (Australia)/ Julie Richardson (Australia)
1990 Natalia Medvedeva (Soviet Union)/ Leila Meshki (Soviet Union) Jill Hetherington (Canada)/ Robin White (USA)
1989 Patty Fendick (USA)/ Jill Hetherington (Canada) Elizabeth Smylie (Australia)/ Janine Thompson (Australia)
1988 Patty Fendick (USA)/ Jill Hetherington (Canada) Cammy MacGregor (USA)/ Cynthia MacGregor (USA)
1987 Anna-Maria Fernandez (USA)/ Julie Richardson (Australia) Gretchen Magers (USA)/ Elizabeth Minter (Australia)
1986 Anne Hobbs (Great Britain)/ Candy Reynolds (USA) Lea Antonoplis (USA)/ Adriana Villagran (Argentina)
1981 Pam Whytcross (Australia)/ S Chapman (New Zealand)   
1980 Janet Newberry (USA)/ Judy Chaloner (New Zealand)  
1979 J Gardiner (Australia)/ Lise Senn (Canada)  
1978 Julia Sim (New Zealand)/ Christine Newton (New Zealand)  
1977 Kathleen Harter (USA)/ Rayni Fox (USA)  
1976  Not completed  
1975 Evonne Goolagong (Australia)/ Wendy Turnbull (Australia)  
1974 Evonne Goolagong (Australia)/ Janet Young (Australia)  
1973 Evonne Goolagong (Australia)/ Janet Young (Australia) Pat Coleman (Australia)/ Marilyn Tesch (Australia)
1972 Rosie Casals (Australia)/ Billie Jean King (USA) Judy Dalton (Australia)/ Francoise Durr (France)
1971 Margaret Court (Australia)/ Evonne Goolagong (Australia)  
1970 Margaret Court (Australia)/Ann Jones (Great Britain) Karen Krantzcke (Australia)/ Kerry Melville (Australia)
1969 Billie Jean King (USA)/ Ann Jones (Great Britain)  
1968 Kerry Melville (Australia)/ Gail Sheriff (Australia)  
1967 Rosie Casals (USA)/ Francoise Durr (France)  
1966 Margaret Smith (Australia)/ Lesley Turner (Australia)  
1965 Jill Blackman (Australia)/ Judy Tegart (Australia)  
1964 Margaret Smith (Australia)/ Jan Lehane (Australia)  
1963 Lesley Turner (Australia)/ Kaye Denning (Australia)  
1962 Darlene Hard (USA)/ Elizabeth Terry (New Zealand)  
1961 Jan Lehane (Australia)/ Lesley Turner (Australia)  
1960 Ruia Morrison (New Zealand)/ Judy Tinnock (New Zealand)  
1959 Mary Reitano (Australia)/ M Turner (Australia)  
1958 Sonia Cox (New Zealand)/ Judy Tinnock (New Zealand)  
1957 Lorraine Coughlan (Australia)/ Margaret Hellyer (Australia)  
1956 Thelma Long (Australia)/ Mary Hawton (Australia)  

 

MEN'S SINGLES CHAMPIONS

YEAR
CHAMPION
RUNNER UP
2019 Tennys Sandgren (USA) Cameron Norrie (Great Britain)
2018 Roberto Bautista Agut (Spain) Juan Martin del Potro (Argentina)
2017 Jack Sock (USA) João Sousa (Portugal)
2016 Roberto Bautista Agut (Spain) Jack Sock (USA)
2015 Jiri Vesely (CZE) Adrian Mannarino (France)
2014 John Isner (USA) Lu Yen-hsun (Taiwan)
2013 David Ferrer (Spain) Phillip Kohlschreiber (Germany)
2012 David Ferrer (Spain) Olivier Rochus (Belgium)
2011 David Ferrer (Spain) David Nalbandian (Argentina)
2010 John Isner (USA) Arnaud Clement (France)
2009 Juan Martin del Potro (Argentina) Sam Querrey (USA)
2008 Phillip Kohlschreiber (Germany) Juan Carlos Ferrero (Spain)
2007 David Ferrer (Spain) Tommy Robredo (Spain)
2006 Jarrko Niemenen (Finland) Mario Ancic (Croatia)
2005 Fernando Gonzalez (Chile) Oliver Rochus (Belgium)
2004 Dominik Hrbaty (Slovakia) Rafael Nadal (Spain)
2003 Gustavo Kuerten (Brazil) Dominik Hrbaty (Slovakia)
2002 Greg Rusedski (Great Britain) Jerome Golmard (France)
2001 Dominik Hrbaty (Slovakia) Francisco Clavet (Spain)
2000 Magnus Norman (Sweden) Michael Chang (USA)
1999 Sjeng Schalken (Netherlands) Tommy Haas (Germany)
1998 Marcelo Ríos (Chile) Richard Fromberg (Australia)
1997 Jonas Björkman (Sweden) Kenneth Carlsen (Denmark)
1996 Jiří Novák (Czech Republic) Brett Steven (New Zealand)
1995 Thomas Enqvist (Sweden) Chuck Adams (USA)
1994 Magnus Gustafsson (Sweden) Patrick McEnroe (USA)
1993 Alexander Volkov (Russia) MaliVai Washington (USA)
1992 Jaime Yzaga (Peru) MaliVai Washington (USA)
1991 Karel Novacek (Czech Republic) Jean-Philippe Fleurian (France)
1990 Scott Davis (USA) Andrei Chesnokov (Russia)
1989 Ramesh Krishnan (India) Amos Mansdorf (Israel)
1988 Amos Mansdorf (Israel) Ramesh Krishnan (India)
1987 Miloslav Mečíř (Slovakia) Michiel Schapers (The Netherlands)
1986 Mark Woodforde (Australia) Bud Schultz (USA)
1985 Chris Lewis (New Zealand) Wally Masur (Australia)
1984 Danny Saltz (USA) Chip Hooper (USA)
1983 John Alexander (Australia) Russell Simpson (New Zealand)
1982 Tim Wilkison (USA) Russell Simpson (New Zealand)
1981 Bill Scanlon (USA) Tim Wilkison (USA)
1980 John Sadri (USA) Tim Wilkison (USA)
1979 Tim Wilkison (USA) Peter Feigl (Austria)
1978 Eliot Teltscher (USA) Onny Parun (New Zealand)
1977 Vijay Amritraj (India) Tim Wilkison (USA)
1976 Onny Parun (New Zealand) Brian Fairly (New Zealand)
1975 Onny Parun (New Zealand) Brian Fairly (New Zealand)
1974 Björn Borg (Sweden) Onny Parun (New Zealand)
1973 Onny Parun (New Zealand) Patrick Proisy (France)
1972 Ray Ruffels (Australia) John Alexander (Australia)
1971 Robert Carmichael (Australia) Allan Stone (Australia)
1970 Roger Taylor (Great Britain) Tom Okker (Netherlands)
1969 Tony Roche (Australia) Rod Laver (Australia)
1968 Barry Phillips-Moore (Australia) Onny Parun (New Zealand)
1967 Roy Emerson (Australia) Owen Davidson (Australia)
1966 Roy Emerson (Australia) Roger Taylor (Great Britain)
1965 Roy Emerson (Australia) Pierre Barthes (France)
1964 Fred Stolle (Australia) Lew Gerrard (New Zealand)
1963 Fred Stolle (Australia) Bob Hewitt (South Africa)
1962 Ken Fletcher (Australia) Lew Gerrard (New Zealand)
1961 Rod Laver (Australia) Roy Emerson (Australia)
1960 Roy Emerson (Australia) Ronald McKenzie (New Zealand)
1959 Jeff Robson (New Zealand) Roy Emerson (Australia)
1958 Trevor Fancutt (South Africa) Robert Mark (Australia)
1957 Ashley Cooper (Australia)  
1956 Robert Perry (USA) Allan Burns (New Zealand)

 

MEN'S DOUBLES CHAMPIONS 

YEAR
CHAMPIONS
RUNNERS UP 
2019  Ben McLachlan (Japan)/ Jan-Lennaard Struff (Germany) Michael Venus (New Zealand)/ Raven Klaasen (South Africa)
2018 Oliver March (Austria)/Mate Pavic (Croatia) Max Mirnyi (Belarus)/ Philipp Oswald (Austria)
2017 Marcin Matkowski (Poland)/ Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi (Pakistan)  Jonathan Erlich (Israel)/ Scott Lipsky (USA)
2016 Mate Pavic (Croatia)/ Michael Venus (New Zealand) Eric Butorac (USA)/ Scott Lipsky (USA) 
2015 Raven Klaasen (South Africa)/ Leander Paes (India) Dominic Inglot (Great Britain)/ Florin Mergea (Romania)
2014 Julian Knowle (Austria)/ Marcelo Melo (Brazil) Alexander Peya (Austria)/ Bruno Soares (Brazil) 
2013 Colin Fleming (Great Britain)/ Bruno Soares (Brazil) Johan Brunstrom (Sweden)/ Frederik Nielsen (Denmark)
2012 Oliver Marach (Austria)/ Alexander Peya (Austria) Frantisek Cermak (Czech Republic)/ Filip Polasek (Poland) 
2011 Marcel Granollers (Spain)/ Tommy Robredo (Spain) Johan Brunstrom (Sweden)/ Stephen Huss (Australia)
2010 Marcus Daniell (New Zealand)/ Horia Tecau (Romania)  Marcelo Melo (Brazil)/ Bruno Soares (Brazil) 
2009 Martin Damm (Czech Republic)/  Robert Lindstedt (Sweden)  Scott Lipsky (USA)/ Leander Paes (India)
2008 Luis Horna (Peru)/ Juan Monaco (Arrgentina)   Xavier Malisse (Germany)/ Jurgen Melzer (Austria)
2007 Jeff Coetzee (South Africa)/ Rogier Wassen (Netherlands)  Simon Aspelin (Sweden)/ Chris Haggard (South Africa) 
2006 Andrei Pavel (Romania)/ Rogier Wassen (Netherlands)  Simon Aspelin (Sweden)/ Todd Perry (Australia) 
2005 Yves Allegro (Switzerland)/ Michael Kohlmann (Germany)  Simon Aspelin (Sweden)/ Todd Perry (Australia) 
2004 Fabrice Santoro (France)/ Mahesh Bhupathi (India)  Jiri Novak (Czech Republic)/ Radek Stepanek (Czech Republic) 
2003 David Adams (South Africa)/ Robbie Koenig (South Africa)  Tomas Cibulec (Czech Republic)/ Leos Friedl (Czech Republic) 
2002 Jonas Bjorkman (Sweden)/ Todd Woodbridge (Australia)  Martin Garcia (Argentina)/ Cyril Suk (Czech Republic) 
2001 Jim Thomas (USA)/ Marius Barnard (South Africa)  David Adams (South Africa)/ Martin Garcia (Argentina)  
2000 Ellis Ferreira (South Africa)/ Rick Leach (USA)  Olivier Delaitre (France)/ Jeff Tarango (USA) 
1999 Jeff Tarango (USA)/ Daniel Vacek (Czech Republic)  Jiri Novak (Czech Republic)/ David Rikl (Czech Republic) 
1998 Patrick Galbraith (USA)/ Brett Steven (New Zealand) Tom Nijssen (Netherlands)/Jeff Tarango (USA) 
1997 Patrick Galbraith (USA)/ Ellis Ferreira (South Africa)  Rick Leach (USA)/ Jonathan Stark (USA) 
1996 Jack Waite (USA)/ Marcos Ondruska (South Africa)  Jonas Bjorkman (Sweden)/ Brett Steven (New Zealand)
1995 Grant Connell (Canada)/ Patrick Galbraith (USA) Luis Lobo (Argentina)/ Javier Sanchez (Spain) 
1994 Patrick McEnroe (USA)/ Jared Palmer (USA) Grant Connell (Canada)/ Patrick Galbraith (USA) 
1993 Grant Connell (Canada)/ Patrick Galbraith (USA)  Alex Antonitsch (Austria)/ Alexander Volkov (Russia) 
1992 Wayne Ferreira (South Africa)/ Jim Grabb (USA) Grant Connell (Canada)/ Grant Michibata(Canada) 
1991 Emilio Sanchez (Spain)/ Sergio Casal (Spain) Grant Connell (Canada)/ Grant Michibata(Canada)  
1990 Kelly Jones (USA)/ Robert van'tHof (USA) Gilad Bloom (Israel)/ Paul Haarhuis (Netherlands) 
1989 Steve Guy (New Zealand)/ Shuzo Matsuoka (Japan) John Letts (USA)/ Bruce Man-Son-Hing (USA) 
1987 Kelly Jones (USA)/ Brad Pearce (USA) Carl Limberger (Australia)/ Mark Woodforde (Australia) 
1986 Broderick Dyke (Australia)/ Wally Masur (Australia) Karl Ricter (USA)/ Rick Rudeen (USA) 
1985 Chris Lewis (New Zealand)/ John Fitzgerald (Australia) Broderick Dyke (Australia)/ Wally Masur (Australia) 
1984 Brian Levine (South Africa)/ John van Nostrand (USA) Brad Drewett (Australia)/ Chip Hooper (USA) 
1983 Russell Simpson (New Zealand)/ C Lewis (New Zealand)  David Graham (Australia)/ Laurie Warder (Australia) 
1982 Jonathan Smith (Great Britain)/ Andrew Jarrett (Great Britain) Larry Stefanki (USA)/ Robert Van't Hof (USA) 
1981 Ferdi Taygan (USA)/ Tim Wilkison (USA)  Tony Graham (USA)/ Bill Scanlon (USA) 
1980 Peter Feigl (Austria)/ Rod Frawley (Australia)  John Sadri (USA)/ Time Wilkinson (USA) 
1979 Bernard Mitton (South Africa)/ Kim Warwick (Australia)  Andrew Jarrett (Great Britain)/ Jonathan Smith (Great Britain) 
1978 Chris Lewis (New Zealand)/ Russell Simpspn (New Zealand) Rod Frawley (Australia)/ Karl Meiler (Germany)
1977 Chris Lewis (New Zealand)/ Russell Simpson (New Zealand)  Peter Langsford (New Zealand)/ Jonathan Smith (Great Britain) 
1976 Not completed  
1975 Robert Carmichael (Australia)/ Ray Ruffels (Australia)  Brian Fairlie (New Zealand)/ Onny Parun (New Zealand) 
1974 Syd Ball (Australia)/ Robert Giltinan (Australia) Ray Ruffels (Australia)/ Allan Stone (Australia) 
1973 Brian Fairlie (New Zealand)/ Allan Stone (Australia)  
1972 Robert Carmichael (Australia)/ Ray Ruffels (Australia)   
1971 Robert Carmichael (Australia)/ Ray Ruffels (Australia)  Brian Fairlie (New Zealand)/ Raymond Moore (South Africa) 
1970 Ray Ruffels (Australia)/ Richard Crealy (Australia)  
1969 Raymond Moore (South Africa)/ Richard Taylor (Great Britain) Mal Anderson (Australia)/ Toomas Leius (Soviet Union) 
1968 Barry Phillips-Moore (Australia)/ Richard Crealy (Australia)  
1967 Roy Emerson (Australia)/ Owen Davidson (Australia)  
1966 Roy Emerson (Australia)/ Fred Stolle (Australia)   
1965 Roy Emerson (Australia)/ Fred Stolle (Australia)   
1964 Fred Stolle (Australia)/ John Newcombe (Australia)   
1963 Fred Stolle (Australia)/ Robert Hewitt (Australia)   
1962 Ken Fletcher (Australia)/ John Newcombe (Australia)   
1961 Rod Laver (Australia)/ Robert Hewitt (Australia)  
1960 Roy Emerson (Australia)/ Neale Fraser (Australia)   
1959 Robert Mark (Australia)/ Roy Emerson (Australia)   
1958 Robert Howe (Australia)/ Robert Mark (Australia)   
1957 Ashley Cooper (Australia)/ Neale Fraser (Australia)   
1956 Jeff Robson (New Zealand)/ Ron McKenzie (New Zealand)